TOO HEAVILY TAXED TO AFFORD IT? VAT AND CULTURAL GOODS

By Victoria Ateca-Amestoy, Javier Gardeazabal and Arantza Ugidos

There is a very scarce tradition of cultural policy evaluation. Many public programs are devoted to increase cultural access by means of direct or indirect funding of cultural activities, targeting either consumers or producer. In this entry, we comment on the causal inference analysis that we did of the 2012 VAT reform for cultural services and its effect on household’s participation and expenditure.

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EX-ANTE VS. EX-POST: A REASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC IMPACT STUDIES IN ARTS AND CULTURE

By Andrej Srakar and Marilena Vecco

The estimation of the economic effects of cultural events is a topic that has stirred numerous debates in cultural economics. Although economic impact studies and contingent valuation have been the most frequently used methods, both suffer from numerous problems. In this article, we use ex-post econometric verification as a new and promising method in cultural economics in the estimation of the economic effects of cultural events and apply it to the estimation of the effects of the 2012 European Capital of Culture Maribor on tourism and employment.

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CAN WE MEASURE CULTURE IN CITIES?

By Valentina Montalto

Provided that culture uniquely defines a city, which urban contexts are more culturally vibrant? And in which ones does culture drive creative economies? This study presents a novel and freely accessible dataset – the Cultural and Creative Cities Monitor – gathering 29 indicators for 168 European cities. Capitals generally lead on ‘Creative Economy’ but non-capitals do better on ‘Cultural Vibrancy’.

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HOW LIBRARY SERVICES HAVE ADAPTED TO NEW CHALLENGES?

By Anna Villarroya and Victoria Ateca-Amestoy

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Which transformations have libraries undergone in recent years? In this paper we claim that, due to new societal challenges and digitization, these institutions have undertaken huge transformations that can be examined looking at the way these institutions are conceptualized and measured through statistical instruments. Using data for the last 15 years in Spain, we show how access to libraries is conceived at a given point in time, and how different functions emerge and evolve to catch up with new realities. We describe the composition and changing patterns of usage, as well as of users’ motivations.

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MEASURING EMOTION THROUGH QUALITY IN SYMPHONY ORCHESTRAS

By Mafalda Gómez-Vega and Luis César Herrero-Prieto

Repertoire programming decisions taken by symphony orchestras usually pursue a mixture of aims that embrace both quality and audience success. We also assume there is a link between fineness or brilliance and excitement. Based on these premises, we assess the quality of symphony orchestras by evaluating their musical repertoire using three partial indicators: contemporaneity, most well-known composers, and repertoire originality.

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THE POLITICIZATION IN THE SELECTION OF UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITES

By Enrico Bertacchini

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The UNESCO World Heritage List is considered one of the most successful international systems for the protection of heritage as a global public good. Yet, the decision-making process behind the selection of heritage sites to be included in the List has been recognized to be subject to mounting politicization. In a recent research we document quantitatively such possibility exploring in depth the decisions of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee for the period 2003-2012.

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