TOO HEAVILY TAXED TO AFFORD IT? VAT AND CULTURAL GOODS

By Victoria Ateca-Amestoy, Javier Gardeazabal and Arantza Ugidos

There is a very scarce tradition of cultural policy evaluation. Many public programs are devoted to increase cultural access by means of direct or indirect funding of cultural activities, targeting either consumers or producer. In this entry, we comment on the causal inference analysis that we did of the 2012 VAT reform for cultural services and its effect on household’s participation and expenditure.

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HOW LIBRARY SERVICES HAVE ADAPTED TO NEW CHALLENGES?

By Anna Villarroya and Victoria Ateca-Amestoy

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Which transformations have libraries undergone in recent years? In this paper we claim that, due to new societal challenges and digitization, these institutions have undertaken huge transformations that can be examined looking at the way these institutions are conceptualized and measured through statistical instruments. Using data for the last 15 years in Spain, we show how access to libraries is conceived at a given point in time, and how different functions emerge and evolve to catch up with new realities. We describe the composition and changing patterns of usage, as well as of users’ motivations.

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